Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations:
Backbone Infrastructure – The public facilities related to the cap, including the cap structure itself. See Chapter 5.
Filtration Systems for Particulates and Gasses (See Chapter 7):
- Electrostatic Filtration – Filtration for particulates, it is the most common type of particulate filtration in large tunnel applications. It uses electricity to charge (ionize) particles, then collected by electrodes – usually electrified plates – with an opposite charge.
- Bag Filters – Filtration for particulates, it is commonly used in industrial settings. Bag filtration has a proven track record in those settings. However, they have proven less effective than electrostatic filtration in tunnel settings.
- Biofiltration – Filtration for both particulates and gasses, it involves a substrate including, e.g., sand or peat, select plants, and a “vegetated filter” and collection system. The benefits of such a system include low environmental profile, passive, and renewable.
- Cold Plasma – This filtration technology holds promise for cost effectively filtering both particles and gases. In this process, ionized gas (“plasma”) is used at ambient temperature (“cold”) to filter particulates and gasses. It is currently still in research and development. There are no current tunnel applications in use. It is likely to be some time yet before this technology is ready for tunnel applications.
- Absorption Denitrification – A gas filtration technology, treated gas undergoes a chemical reaction so that it will adhere to a solid surface. Activated carbon filtration is the most common form of this technology. The Japanese have also pioneered a system using potassium hydroxide.
- Adsorption Denitrification – A gas filtration technology, in contrast to absorption denitrification, in adsorption denitrification (ab vs. ad) technology, gases are not altered or degraded before adhering to a solid material. Typically, this technology runs the gaseous air through containers holding pellets which “adsorb” the gases in their pores.
- Photocatalytic Denitrification – A gas filtration technology, it uses uses titanium oxide (TiO2) and ultraviolet light to break down nitrogen oxides. The technology has proven fairly effective (with 15% – 30% NO2 reductions) in a tunnel in a Rome. However, there is concern about the health and environment impact of nanoparticles released in the process.
Build America Transportation Investment Center (BATIC) – The USDOT’s Build America Transportation Investment Center (BATIC) is an online resource established to help projects across the country learn from others’ experiences, in particular, to foster P3s.
Business Improvement District (BID) – Districts typically created to promote and serve businesses within the district. BID fees are usually added to the business license fee. See Chapter 5.
Congestion Mitigation Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) – Federal grant program, see Appendix A for more information. See Chapter 5.
Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) – Federal grant program, see Appendix A for more information. See Chapter 5.
Development Impact Fees (DIF) – A fee based upon square footage or the number of residential units, which the developer pays to local agencies in exchange for project permits / entitlements. See Chapter 5.
DOT – Department of Transportation, generic term, can mean either U.S. Department of Transportation or state departments of transportation (as defined below under statutory definitions).
General Obligation Bonds (GO Bonds) – A bond which is secured by state or local governments to use government resources to repay the bond holders. GO Bonds rely on the city’s ability to repay the bonds through taxes rather than future revenue from the project. See Chapter 5.
Interstate Highway System (HIS) – Also known as the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, which was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Interstate Highway System are those routes typically designated with the letter “I” followed by a number. It is a subset of the National Highway System. See Chapter 8.
National Highway System (NHS) – A system of strategic roads designated by the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995. In addition to interstate highways, the NHS includes (quoted from NHS website):
- Other Principal Arterials: These are highways in rural and urban areas which provide access between an arterial and a major port, airport, public transportation facility, or other intermodal transportation facility.
- Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET): This is a network of highways which are important to the United States’ strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity and emergency capabilities for defense purposes.
- Major Strategic Highway Network Connectors: These are highways which provide access between major military installations and highways which are part of the Strategic Highway Network.
- Intermodal Connectors: These highways provide access between major intermodal facilities and the other four subsystems making up the National Highway System. A listing of all official NHS Intermodal Connectors is available. See Chapter 8.
Public/Private Partnership (PPP or P3) – P3s allow private and public entities to work collaboratively to plan, finance, and build development projects next to or adjoined to public transportation facilities. See Chapter 5.
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Effective Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) – Federal grant program, see Appendix A for more information. See Chapter 5.
SDOT – See State Department of Transportation under Statutory Definitions, below.
Surface Transportation Program (STP) – Federal grant program, see Appendix A for more information. See Chapter 5.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) – A “value capture strategy” whereby property tax revenue from attributable to increases in appraised property values during a defined time period and within a defined geographical area is earmarked for infrastructure, public projects, or redevelopment within that geographical area. See Chapter 5.
Transient Occupancy Tax (TOT) – a hotel tax, typically per room per night. See Chapter 5.
Transportation Enhancement (TE) – Federal grant program, see Appendix A for more information. See Chapter 5.
Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) – Federal grant program, see Appendix A for more information. See Chapter 5.
Statututory and Regulatory Definitions
The following definitions are set forth verbatim in 23 CFR 710.105(b):
Access rights mean the right of ingress to and egress from a property to a public way.
Acquiring agency means a State agency, other entity, or person acquiring real property for title 23, United States Code, purposes. When an acquiring agency acquires real property interests that will be incorporated into a project eligible for title 23 grant funds, the acquiring agency must comply with Federal real estate and ROW requirements applicable to the grant.
Acquisition means activities to obtain an interest in, and possession of, real property.
Damages means the loss in the value attributable to remainder property due to the severance or consequential damages, as limited by State law, that arise when only part of an owner’s real property is acquired.
Disposal means the transfer by sale or other conveyance of permanent rights in excess real property, when the real property interest is not currently or in the foreseeable future needed for highway ROW or other uses eligible for funding under title 23 of the United States Code. A disposal must meet the requirements contained in § 710.403(b) of this part. The term “disposal” includes actions by a grantee, or its subgrantees, in the nature of relinquishment, abandonment, vacation, discontinuance, and disclaimer of real property or any rights therein.
Donation means the voluntary transfer of privately owned real property, by a property owner who has been informed in writing by the acquiring agency of rights and benefits available to owners under the Uniform Act and this section, for the benefit of a public transportation project without compensation or with compensation at less than fair market value.
Early acquisition means acquisition of real property interests by an acquiring agency prior to completion of the environmental review process for a proposed transportation project, as provided under 23 CFR 710.501 and 23 U.S.C. 108.
Early Acquisition Project means a project for the acquisition of real property interests prior to the completion of the environmental review process for the transportation project into which the acquired property will be incorporated, as authorized under 23 U.S.C. 108 and implemented under § 710.501 of this part. It may consist of the acquisition of real property interests in a specific parcel, a portion of a transportation corridor, or an entire transportation corridor.
Easement means an interest in real property that conveys a right to use or control a portion of an owner’s property or a portion of an owner’s rights in the property either temporarily or permanently.
Excess real property means a real property interest not needed currently or in the foreseeable future for transportation purposes or other uses eligible for funding under title 23, United States Code.
Federal-aid project means a project funded in whole or in part under, or requiring an FHWA approval pursuant to provisions in chapter 1 of title 23, United States Code.
Federally assisted means a project or program that receives grant funds under title 23, United States Code.
Grantee means the party that is the direct recipient of title 23 funds and is accountable to FHWA for the use of the funds and for compliance with applicable Federal requirements.
Mitigation property means real property interests acquired to mitigate for impacts of a project eligible for funding under title 23.
Option means the purchase of a right to acquire real property within an agreed-to period of time for an agreed-to amount of compensation or through an agreed-to method by which compensation will be calculated.
Person means any individual, family, partnership, corporation, or association.
Real Estate Acquisition Management Plan (RAMP) means a written document that details how a non-State department of transportation grantee, subgrantee, or design-build contractor will administer the title 23 ROW and real estate requirements for its project or program of projects. The document must be approved by the SDOT, or by the funding agency in the case of a non-SDOT grantee, before any acquisition work may begin. It must lay out in detail how the acquisition and relocation assistance programs will be accomplished and any anticipated issues that may arise during the process. If relocations are reasonably expected as part of the title 23 projects or program, the Real Estate Acquisition Management Plan (RAMP) must address relocation assistance and related procedures.
Real property or real property interest means any interest in land and any improvements thereto, including fee and less-than-fee interests such as: temporary and permanent easements, air or access rights, access control, options, and other contractual rights to acquire an interest in land, rights to control use or development, leases, and licenses, and any other similar action to acquire or preserve ROW for a transportation facility. As used in this part, the terms “real property” and “real property interest” are synonymous unless otherwise specified.
Relinquishment means the conveyance of a portion of a highway ROW or facility by a grantee under title 23, United States Code, or its subgrantee, to another government agency for continued transportation use. (See part 620, subpart B of this chapter.)
Right-of-way (ROW) means real property and rights therein obtained for the construction, operation, maintenance, or mitigation of a transportation or related facility funded under title 23, United States Code.
ROW manual means an operations manual that establishes a grantee’s acquisition, valuation, relocation, and property management and disposal requirements and procedures, and has been approved in accordance with § 710.201(c).
ROW use agreement means real property interests, defined by an agreement, as evidenced by instruments such as a lease, license, or permit, for use of real property interests for non-highway purposes where the use is in the public interest, consistent with the continued operation, maintenance, and safety of the facility, and such use will not impair the highway or interfere with the free and safe flow of traffic (see also 23 CFR 1.23). These rights may be granted only for a specified period of time because the real property interest may be needed in the future for highway purposes or other purposes eligible for funding under title 23.
Settlement means the result of negotiations based on fair market value in which the amount of just compensation is agreed upon for the purchase of real property or an interest therein. This term includes the following:
(1) An administrative settlement is a settlement reached prior to filing a condemnation proceeding based on value related evidence, administrative consideration, or other factors approved by an authorized agency official.
(2) A legal settlement is a settlement reached by an authorized legal representative or a responsible official of the acquiring agency who has the legal power vested in him by State law, after filing a condemnation proceeding, including agreements resulting from mediation and stipulated settlements approved by the court in which the condemnation action had been filed.
(3) A court settlement or court award is any decision by a court that follows a contested trial or hearing before a jury, commission, judge, or other legal entity having the authority to establish the amount of just compensation for a taking under the laws of eminent domain.
State agency means: A department, agency, or instrumentality of a State or of a political subdivision of a State; any department, agency, or instrumentality of two or more States or of two or more political subdivisions of a State or States; or any person who has the authority to acquire property by eminent domain, for public purposes, under State law.
State department of transportation (SDOT) means the State highway department, transportation department, or other State transportation agency or commission to which title 23, United States Code, funds are apportioned.
Stewardship/Oversight Agreement means the written agreement between the SDOT and FHWA that defines the respective roles and responsibilities of FHWA and the State for carrying out certain project review, approval, and oversight responsibilities under title 23, including those activities specified by 23 U.S.C. 106(c)(3).
Subgrantee means a government agency or legal entity that enters into an agreement with a grantee to carry out part or all of the activity funded by title 23 grant funds. A subgrantee is accountable to the grantee for the use of the funds and for compliance with applicable Federal requirements.
Temporary development restriction means the purchase of a right to temporarily control or restrict development or redevelopment of real property. This right is for an agreed to time period, defines specifically what is restricted or controlled, and is for an agreed to amount of compensation.
Transportation project means any highway project, public transportation capital project, multimodal project, or other project that requires the approval of the Secretary. As used in this part, the term “transportation project” does not include an Early Acquisition Project as defined in this section.
Uneconomic remnant means a remainder property which the acquiring agency has determined has little or no utility or value to the owner.
Uniform Act means the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, as amended (Pub. L. 91-646, 84 Stat. 1894; primarily codified in 42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.), and the implementing regulations at 49 CFR part 24.
Under 23 USC §101(a) contains the following definitions related to roadways covered by 23 CFR 710:
(11) Highway. The term “highway” includes–
(A) a road, street, and parkway;
(B) a right-of-way, bridge, railroad-highway crossing, tunnel, drainage structure including public roads on dams, sign, guardrail, and protective structure, in connection with a highway; and
(C) a portion of any interstate or international bridge or tunnel and the approaches thereto, the cost of which is assumed by a State transportation department, including such facilities as may be required by the United States Customs and Immigration Services in connection with the operation of an international bridge or tunnel.
(12) Interstate system. The term “Interstate System” means the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways described in section 103(c) [23 USCS § 103(c)].
. . .
(16) National Highway System. The term “National Highway System” means the Federal-aid highway system described in section 103(b) [23 USCS § 103(b)].
23 USCS § 103(b) defines “National Highway System” as:
(1) Description. The National Highway System consists of the highway routes and connections to transportation facilities that shall–
(A) serve major population centers, international border crossings, ports, airports, public transportation facilities, and other intermodal transportation facilities and other major travel destinations;
(B) meet national defense requirements; and
(C) serve interstate and interregional travel and commerce.
 Backbone infrastructure is described in Economic & Planning Systems, Inc., Final Draft Financing Strategy U.S. 101 Ventura Capping Project Phase 2, (September 5, 2012), p. 11
 USDOT. (July 13, 2015). San Francisco’s $1.1 Billion Presidio Parkway Completed. USDOT Press Releases. FHWA 52-15. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pressroom/fhwa1552.cfm
 Investopedia. (n.d.). General Obligation Bond- GO. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/generalobligationbond.asp
 Interstate Highway System, supra, Wikipedia
 National Highway System, supra, Wikipedia
 U.S.D.O.T. – F.H.W.A, National Highway System, Retrieved on Nov. 1, 2017 from https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/national_highway_system/
 Wikipedia, Tax increment financing, Retrieved on Nov. 22, 2017 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tax_increment_financing
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